Sunday, July 31, 2011

Green Walkathons and Elephantathons

Contributed by : Rajendra Shende , Head
United Nations Environment Programme ( UNEP )
Division of Technology, Industry and Economics, Paris, France.

World Environment Day has interesting acronym: WED! I think it is very appropriate. Nature’s spirit and human thoughts are required to wed. Both of them have accepted the responsibilities of living together in their shared (only) home and in harmony.

Every year one country agrees to host the WED. The day also has a specific theme each year. This year India, was host country for the first time and the WED theme was : “Forests: Nature at your Service”. The theme certainly was very timely and fitting but the specific coining of the theme left me rather sad. “Nature at your service”? Are not nature and humans at least partners in context of this planetary WEDding?

This year, immediately after WED, I came across something very shocking, even touching and iconic. It appeared that the nature did not agree with the WED theme. A strong message emerged from nature targeted at us human beings who are nature’s partners.

I recall that when India was referred a few decades ago, what came to the mind of foreigners was “elephants and snakes”. It also represented, ironically, a slow and serpentine progress in development. Nowadays, tourists do not go to India to see snakes and elephants, though they are still worshipped all over the country. Now foreign leaders and politicians go to India determined to land first in Bangalore, India’s software capital, and then on to New Delhi, a political capital.

No wonder then that WED saw events in Bangalore and New Delhi. They were lead by the Minister for Environment and Forests in India, Jairam Ramesh and UN Under-Secretary General and UNEP Executive Director, Achim Steiner. In the capital, tree planting took place as part of a ‘Green Walkathon’ which was fagged off by he Minister Ramesh. In a country of more than 1 billion people and capital city of more than 10 million, the Walkathon participated in by 1000 participants, while symbolic, was not perhaps too impressive.

In the software capital Bangalore, Mr. Steiner flagged off ‘Green Marathon’ . Infosys, India’s second largest IT firm organised a ‘Walkathon’ before planting 20,000 native trees in the nearby Ramnagaram Forest.

UNEP’s report on “Green Economy and Forests” was launched by Mr. Steiner with a message that investing an additional US $40 billion a year in the forestry sector could halve deforestation rates by 2030, increase rates of tree planting by around 140 percent by 2050, and catalyze the creation of millions of new jobs worldwide. Messages and curtain calls abounded; ‘Save the forest’, ‘Save our WEDed partner’. This all happened on the 5th June. So far so good. Festivities were over and dignitaries were pleased with the outcome. Then came 8th June.

Not far from Bangalore where the ‘Walkathon’ and tree planting took place just three days before, a handful of elephants decided to

hold a belated WED celebration. About 150 km from that hub of the software capital of India, the elephants emerged from their home of the Bandipur Forest to begin their own walkathon. So how was this done? Naturally not holding placards with slogans to promote tree planting. They considered it enough to attack cars, motorcycles and buildings and then finally they attacked a creator of these development icons: a human being! Two of the rampaging elephants returned to the forest eventually followed by those remaining once they had calmed down.

I am not sure if the elephants issued a press release on their ‘Elephantathon”. If not they could, they would have written:

Press release by the elephants of India

Saving forests requires a change in life-style and message-style

Mysore Bandipur Forest, 8th June Morning. Just three days after WED was celebrated by UN and the Ministry of India, four youthful representatives of our Elephantidae Family held an “Elephantathon” in the main streets of Mysore. They demonstrated through their anger that our natural habitats are being eroded irreversibly by the human beings, thereby forcing us to come out of our shelters.

“Rather shockingly, 36 million acres of natural forest are lost each year due to human activities. We are forced out of our homes in the forest” said the Secretary General of Elephants Youth Wing. “We think that we have given strong message to human beings and to the Indian Government as well as the United Nations that we need to act now rather than giving speeches and holding WED events year after year ,” he added.

The Elephantine Minister of the Bandipur Forest said that “Continued and uncontrolled deforestation not only has devastating

consequences for the environment, the wildlife and communities, but it could also start a new level of conflict between human beings and wildlife, which would be more catastrophic than the water-wars and food-wars that the UN is forecasting”.

The event ended with a resolution that Green Economy should not be measured just by the number of green jobs created for the human beings, as proposed by United Nations, but also be based on a number of measures taken to let wild animals and wildlife remain unperturbed.


Contributed by : Rajendra Shende , Head
United Nations Environment Programme ( UNEP )
Division of Technology, Industry and Economics, Paris, France.

Waste Management ( WM ) has acquired Oakleaf Global Holdings. Oakleaf Global Holdings is a third party hauler network in North America.

Waste Management ( WM ) has acquired Oakleaf Global Holdings. Oakleaf Global Holdings is a third party hauler network. The acquisition was valued at $425 million. According to Waste Management the combined company will provide a large variety of waste and recycling solutions to the customers. Oakleaf Global Holdings has about 2500 haulers. It is the leader in North America in outsources hauling and recycling services. The division which has been acquired has generated about $850 million in revenues in 2010. 

DHL Global forwarding launches GoGreen Carbon Dashboard a service which will help customers to capture carbon emissions in their supply chain

DHL Global forwarding helps customers with supply chain offerings. It has launched a service called GoGreen Carbon Dashboard. It will help the customers to track the carbon emissions in their supply chain. It will measure and capture the carbon emissions from DHL and also from other sources and will proved a single interface for the carbon measurement system. The system uses an international public standard to calculate carbon emissions. It tries to give carbon emissions the due importance along with other supply chain parameters. 

Constellation Energy and Denver International Airport ( DIA ) has completed a 4.4 MW solar power system

Constellation Energy and Denver International Airport ( DIA ) has completed a 4.4 MW solar power system. The system is ground mounted. Constellation Energy is responsible for building, owning and maintaining the solar system and the airport will purchase the electricity over the next 20 years. The airport has now a installed capacity of 8MW. Among all the airports Denver International Airport has the highest capacity to produce solar power. This is the third large scale project by the airport. 

Public Service Electric and Gas Company ( PSE&G ) and Matrix Development Group have inaugurated the solar installation as a part of the Solar 4 All program

Public Service Electric and Gas Company ( PSE&G ) and Matrix Development Group have inaugurated the solar installation. The rooftop solar installation is on Matrix owned building located in South Brunswick, N.J. The project has a capacity of 3MW. It is a part of the Public Service Electric and Gas Company’s Solar 4 All program. The program has an objective to meet the solar energy goals, create jobs and also help in economic development of the state. 

Modius’ OpenData Enterprise Edition will provide integration with Intel Data Center Manager and enhance Open Data.

Modius’ OpenData Enterprise Edition will provide integration with Intel Data Center Manager. Modius has said that the integration will enhance Open Data. Open Data is a platform for data center infrastructure management. It has greater visibility and analytics. Open Data will not have more energy intelligence and will concentrate IT facilities and assets. This will help companies to reduce power costs and also provide early warnings for outages.

IMO passes new law on Shipping - Targets reduction of emissions from 2013

The shipping industry accounts for 1,046 million tones of CO2 produced worldwide which translates to 3.3% of the total CO2 emissions. A study conducted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in 2009 indicated that this figure is projected to increase to 6% by 2020 and could grow by 150 - 250% by 2050 if no actions are taken. [1]
In light of the issues raised by the study, the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC), a subcommittee of IMO in July 2011 passed a law to curb emissions of ships being produced from 2013 onwards.[2]
The salient features of the law are the following –
· The regulation passed makes it mandatory for new ships weighing more than 400 gross tons to have an Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI)[3]
· The IMO’s Energy Efficiency Design Index mandates ships built between 2015 and 2019 will need to improve their efficiency by 10 per cent, rising to 20 per cent between 2020 and 2024 and 30 per cent thereafter
· For all ships weighing more than 400 gross tons must have a mandatory Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP)[4]
· New definitions and requirements for survey and certification, including the format for the International Energy Efficiency Certificate
· Developing countries such as India, China and Brazil have been given a waiver for 6.5 years
It is evident from the highlighted features of the law that the IMO has decided to act on reducing the carbon footprint of the shipping industry and going forward we’re likely to see more action being initiated on curbing of emissions front. Therefore, it would be prudent for ship manufacturers to initiate the management’s thought process on this issue within their organization.
Immediate Reactions –
The new law has been met with mixed reactions from the industry. Environmental NGO’s are happy with the decision being taken but they are voicing concerns about how the law does not address carbon dioxide levels directly. They also believe that the because of the 6.5 year delay, the law effectively comes into play from 2019 and it might be too late by then.
Bill Hemmings of Transport & Environment said: “Adopting the EEDI is the right step but the long delay weakens its short to medium term impact significantly. If the IMO does not deliver action quickly now on existing ships, it will be up to the EU to take the lead at a regional level”.[5]
Similar sentiments were sounded in the words of Jenny Cooper of Environmental Fund who said: “The International Maritime Organization is moving at a glacial speed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions effectively. Passing an efficiency standard and merely discussing market-based measure in meetings isn’t enough — countries need to take further concrete actions in their own regional policies”.
Regardless of the concerns over the actual impact that the law may be able to achieve, it at the minimum gives a signal to the industry that GHG emission regulation in the marine sector is a priority issue for IMO.

[2] These changes were introduced to the MARPOL Annex VI for the prevention of air pollution from ships.
[3] According to the IMO the EEDI is a non-prescriptive, performance based mechanism which means that ship companies are free to adopt whichever technology they find the most cost-efficient to achieve these targets. The IMO is still working on calculating different parameters such as minimum optimum speed for ships of different sizes so that the issue of low power can be addressed.
[4] The IMO has issued guidelines for ship owners and operators as to what all the SEEMP must include. These include have a system which must include the following 4 steps – planning, implementation, monitoring, and self evaluation.

The Green Sports alliance will grow as facilities like the Citizens Business Bank Arena, Rose Garden and L.A. LIVE operated by AEG will join the alliance.

The Green Sports Alliance will grow in size as more venues have decided to join the alliance. More than 50 sports facilities owned or operated by AEG will now join the alliance, which include the Citizens Business Bank Arena, Rose Garden and L.A. LIVE.  AEG is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Anschutz Company. AEG also operates facilities like Staples Center, Home Depot Center and Target Center. The Green Sports Alliance was launched five months ago and since then more than 45 sports teams and venues have joined the alliance. 

General Motors and Ford have agreed on a deal with the Barack Obama administration which will increase the fuel efficiency to 54.5 miles per gallon by 2025

General Motors and Ford have agreed on a deal with the Barack Obama administration which will increase the fuel efficiency to 54.5 miles per gallon by 2025. The two car makers were the first to sign the memorandums of understanding ( MoUs) and other car makers were agreeing to sign the same soon. Talks with the automakers and the state of California went on long. 

UPS and FedEx have released their sustainability reports and have shown improvements on various parameters

UPS as well as FedEx have released sustainability reports. UPS sustainability report shows a 3.3 % reduction in fuel consumption per package in 2010 compared to the year 2009. Similarly FedEx has been able to cut greenhouse gas emissions on all the three scopes during the same time. UPS also has been able to clock and has reached the milestone of 200 million miles driven on alternative fuel or vehicles driven on advanced technology since the year 2000. Using technologies like telematics and routing technologies has helped UPS to avoid over 63.5 million miles in the year 2010. 

Blue Ribbon Commission set up by U.S. President Barack Obama has come up with a plant to encourage communities to host nuclear waste facility

President Barack Obama has established a commission which has come up with a plant to encourage U.S. Communities so that a nuclear waste facility can be hosted in their locality. A commission will propose a consent based approach. This will help them to reduce delays and cut costs. Communities will be encouraged to volunteer to host the facility according to the Blue Ribbon Commission.  The c15 member commission was set up in 2010. Obama has cancelled plans to build a facility at Nevada’s Yucca Mountain, about 100 miles (161 kilometers) north of Las Vegas as it was opposed by the politicians from the state. 

Tulsi Tanti controlled Suzlon posted more than expected profits in the last quarter as sales rose for wind turbines

Suzlon Energy Ltd. has made more than expected profits in the first quarter. They have posted better results than expected by the analysts. This was primarily due to record sales in the last quarter. The firm made $13.6 million as profits were as in the same quarter last year the firm made a loss. The company is based out of Ahmedabad, India. The financial results were disclosed by Mr. Robin Banerjee. The firm is owned by billionaire Tusli Tanti. 

Friday, July 29, 2011

Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan said that Japan’s ministers have agreed on a plan which will reduce the country’s dependency on Nuclear energy.

Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan said that Japan’s ministers have agreed on a plan which will reduce the country’s dependency on Nuclear energy. The proposal will be implemented in three phases. The first phase will cover for the next three years. The second phase will cover till 2020 and last phase will be till 2050. The plan also suggested that generation and distribution of electricity should be separated. 

Bekaert NV is the largest maker of steel and tire cords disclosed a decline in Profits after drop in demand for solar panels in Europe and chord in China.

Bekaert NV is the largest maker of steel and tire cords.  The company is based out of Belgium.  The share prices dropped by 16% when the profits declined. There has been a lower demand for chord in China. The demand for solar panels also dropped in Europe which also contributed to the drop in profits. 

Ikea has bought wind farm in Huntly Scotland from Good Energies Capital Inc. and also plans to install solar panels in U.K. Stores.

Ikea Group is the largest home furnishing retailer of the world. It has bought a wind farm in Scotland. It also plans to install solar panels in U.K. stores . This is a part of the strategy of the company to derive renewable energy. Ikea has bought the wind farm in Scotland. The wind farm is of 12.3 megawatt capacity.  The wind farm was bought from Good Energies Capital Inc..

Charles Monnett is a U.S. researcher and wildlife biologist known for his work on polar bears , which ensured that the species was listed as endangered has been put on paid administrative leave

Charles Monnett is a U.S. researcher and wildlife biologist. He is known for his work on polar bears , which ensured that the species was listed as endangered. He worked in Anchorage with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement. He has been suspended and put on paid administrative leave because the Interior Department’s inspector general wants to investigate integrity issues. Monnett is in charge of several studies which have a bearing on the permits for oil and gas development. 

Thursday, July 28, 2011

Citigroup Inc. has joined hands with Total SA backed SunPower and will contribute to a fund which supports residentail solar power project in eight states in Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania.

Citigroup Inc has decided to contribute to the fund started by SunPower Corp. Citigroup will contribute about $80 million to $105 million fund which will is being created to finance residential solar projects. The fund initially will be focused only in eight states.   Total SA which is a French oil company controls about 60% of SunPower. SunPower  is providing financial assistance to residences in Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania.

U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) has proposed new rules for reducing the pollution from oil and gas exploration and production.

The U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) has proposed new rules for reducing the pollution from oil and gas exploration and production. The new proposed rule would also include the U.S. air standard for drilling using hydraulic fracturing. The proposal has four regulations inbuilt into it. One of them would be aimed at cutting emissions from volatile organic compounds which can cause smog by one fourth. It would also cut the discharges from hydraulic fracturing process by 95%. 

US Debt Plan and Carbon Prices

Carbon market is facing a big turmoil due to bad economic situation, lack of certainity on global carbon deal post 2012, as well structure of the market. And if uncertainity remains on US debt deal, carbon prices may fall further in next one week. Prices may fall by another 8-10% in near future.

Solaria Energia and Medio Ambiente SA will supply solar kits to GreenTech under a new strategic agreement

Solaria Energia and Medio Ambiente SA will supply solar kits to GreenTech under a new strategic agreement signed recently. Each solar kit will be of 2.2 megawatts of capacity. They will be installed on the rooftops of 500 public buildings. 

Wednesday, July 27, 2011

Gamesa Corp. Tecnologica SA has struck a deal with Italy’s Enel Green Power SpA to sell two wind farms located in Greece

Gamesa Corp. Tecnologica SA has struck a deal with  Enel Green Power SpA. Enel Green Power SpA is based out of Italy. Gamesa has sold two wind farms to Enel Green Power. The wind farms have a combined installed capacity of 38 megawatts.  The wind farms are located in Greece. 

Slovakia passed the legislation to reduce government subsidies for solar power plants.

Slovakia passed the legislation to reduce government subsidies for solar power plants. This has prompted the companies to speed up the construction of solar power plants. The installed capacity of solar power plants have increased to 478 megawatts. The new legislation will be applicable for solar plants exceeding 100 kilowatts. The government introduced the subsidies to encourage investment in the sector so that the country can meet European Union’s obligation.  Now the government has realized that excessive investment in the sector to have undesirable effects on the prices of electricity as solar power is more expensive to produce. 

U.S. based NextEra Energy Inc. is the largest wind producer in the country, has put in a plan to invest $5.8 billion for the next three years for solar and wind projects, disclosed by Lewis Hay, CEO

U.S. based NextEra Energy Inc. is the largest wind producer in the country. It has put in a plan to invest $5.8 billion for the next three years for solar and wind projects. Almost $2.3 billion will be spend on solar projects while $2.7 billion to $3.1 billion will be spend on wind projects. This was disclosed by Lewis Hay, chief executive officer. The electricity produced will be supplied under power purchase contracts. 

Portuguese Renewable energy firm EDP Renovaveis SA has doubled its first half profit

EDP Renovaveis SA is a renewable energy firm. It is a unit of the Portuguese utility firm EDP-Energias de Portugal SA. It has disclosed that the first half profit of the firm has doubled. This is due to the fact that it has been able to double the electricity output and also it has extended the life of its assets. The net income of the firm rose to 90 million euros . It was 43 million euros last year. The firm is also expanding to new markets like U.S. to exploit the government support for renewable energy sector. 

Madrid Spain based Acciona SA is a the second largest wind farm owner and the firm declared more than estimated earnings leading to steep rise in the share prices

Acciona SA is a wind farm owner based out of Madrid, Spain. It is the second largest wind farm owner. The share prices of the firm rose the most in the last six months after the firm declared more than estimated earnings. The EBITDA (Earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization) climbed 19 percent to 631 million euros. The share prices rose by 5.6 % in trading in Madrid.

Department of Energy has a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado is now LEED Platinum certified

Part of the Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colo., has been awarded LEED Platinum status. NREL’s Research Support Facility (pictured), at 220,000 square feet, is the largest net-zero energy building in the United States, NREL says. The building uses concrete slabs embedded with hydronic tubing for low-temperature radiant heating and high-temperature radiant cooling.

Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) and Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) are expanding their services by tying with firms like SAP

Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) and Carbon Disclosure Project ( CDP) are expanding their scope of operations. They are trying to help companies at every stage of the reporting cycle. CDP has tied up with SAP and is providing a SaaS based service by using SAP for reporting. DuPont is using this facility to repot sustainability data. 

Michael Wurth Vice President , Environment Protection and Management, Sustainability for Munich Airport in Germany talks about Sustainability

Michael Wurth is the Vice President , Environment Protection and Management, Sustainability  for Munich Airport in Germany. In this video he talks about the sustainability initiatives in Munich Airport and also talks about the fact that people need to see much beyond the initial investments to reduce the CO2. 

Tokyo Electric Power Co ( TEPCO ) will be carrying out repair in one of the units in Kashima thermal power plant.

Tokyo Electric Power Co ( TEPCO) will be carrying out repair in one of the units in Kashima thermal power plant. This thermal power plant is located in Japan’s Ibaraki prefecture. One of the boilers has developed a gas leak . To repair the same it will halt the unit No. 4. 

World Bank to give loans to Indonesia to support PT Pertamina Geothermal Energy for expanding geothermal capacity

The World Bank will provide loans to Indonesia for expanding geothermal projects. The two project that would receive help are in Indonesia’s Sumatra and Sulawesi islands. World bank would give around $300 million. The loans will help them to increase the capacity by as much as 150 megawatts by 2015. PT Pertamina Geothermal Energy will benefit from the loan it is a unit of PT Pertamina. PT Pertamina is owned by the State. 

President Barack Obama’s administration, General Motors Co. (GM), Ford Motor Co. and Chrysler Group LLC are discussing to bring down the new fuel economy 2025 target from 56.2 to 54.5 miles per gallon (mpg).

President Barack Obama’s administration initially had put in a target of 56.2 miles per gallon (mpg) as the fuel economy target. However there has been resistance from the Big three automobile companies in U.S. General Motors Co. (GM), Ford Motor Co. and Chrysler Group LLC. They have been discussing the same with the administration.  It seems that the administration has agreed to alter the fuel economy target for 2025 to 54.5 miles per gallon. The relaxation comes from the fact that the government needs to make allowances for the light trucks. 

Tuesday, July 26, 2011

AbTech Holdings Incorporated has designed and successfully tested a product known as Smart Sponge 55, which can be used for treating hazardous and contaminated water.

AbTech Holdings Incorporated has designed and successfully tested a product which can be used for treating hazardous and contaminated water. This product is known as Smart Sponge 55. The potential customers are chemical shipping firms and also to firms which are into ground water remediation. Also firms in the energy sector can be potential customers. The product needs no human contact for disposal hence it is completely safe for use. The product can be used multiple number of times. 

Weyerhaeuser Company is installing a plant which will convert waste into energy in Greenville, North Carolina

Weyerhaeuser Company is installing a plant which will convert waste into energy. The plant will be located in Greenville, North Carolina where the company also has its mill. The plant will capture heat that is wasted from a kiln. This captured heat will be used to convert heat energy into electricity. The plant will have a capacity to produce about 4.5 million kilowatt hours of electricity per year. This will be equivalent to 9 million pounds of CO2 emissions every year. 

U.S. based packaging firm Sonoco is moving toward its target of landfill free status for five plants in covering packaging services, consumer packaging and also the areas like tubes and core operations

Sonoco is a packaging company which is based out of U.S. The firm has 3000 plants worldwide. It is working towards making five manufacturing plants to landfill-free status by this year. It has plans to divert 99 % of the landfill waste. For this it has initiated program at each of this plants. These plants cover packaging services, consumer packaging and also the areas like tubes and core operations. The firm also has target to have 10% of its operations meet the landfill-free status by the year 2015. 

GE has released its 2010 Citizenship report. According to the report it has failed to meet its target of reducing environmental exceedances in air and water in the year 2010 by 25%.

GE has released its 2010 Citizenship report. According to the report it has failed to meet its target of reducing environmental exceedances in air and water in the year 2010 by 25%. The environmental exceedances in air and water increased last year . Air exceedances were at 29 in 2010 compared to 3 in the year 2009. Water exceedances were at 62 which was higher than the figure of 38 in 2009. GE on the other hand has managed to reduce the spills and releases by 50%.  

Sustainability initiatives from SC Johnson: New Informational Forum and Carbon Calculator on Corporate Web Site Aims to Help Families Make Greener Choices for a Better World

SC Johnson Empowers Families to be a Force for Change

New Informational Forum and Carbon Calculator on Corporate Web Site Aims to Help Families Make Greener Choices for a Better World

RACINE, Wis., July 25, 2011 - SC Johnson, a family company, has taken a new step in empowering families to be a force for change in the world.  The company expanded its corporate web site,, to include a section entitled “Greener Choices,” designed to provide families with information to help them make daily changes to help the environment. 
The new Greener Choices forum shares insights from SC Johnson, but also encourages discussions within families and communities.  It includes tips on small, easy choices families can make for a better world, as well as an area where people can post their own tips and recommendations.  The section covers four main areas including: Conserving Energy, More with Less, Reduce & Recycle and Everyday Alternatives.  The Greener Choices site also offers perspective from well-known green family blogger Scarlet Paolicchi of the FamilyFocus Blog and FAQs from SC Johnson about its own green practices.  Additionally, the company is hoping to continue the conversation about greener choices on Twitter at @SCJGreenChoices (
"As a family company, we know change starts at home," explained Kelly M. Semrau, Senior Vice President – Global Corporate Affairs, Communication & Sustainability." A conversation at the dinner table leads to a decision to start recycling... and progress grows from there. By giving families easy tips and tools to understand their impact on the earth, we hope to help them make some of the simple but important changes that can add up to a real difference."
The launch of the Greener Choices site coincides with SC Johnson’s launch of Windex® Mini, a concentrated refill pouch that uses 90 percent less plastic packaging than a traditional 26 fluid ounce trigger Windex® bottle.  With Windex® Mini SC Johnson hopes to gain valuable insight into how Americans use concentrated cleaning products to inform future efforts of similar nature. Windex® Mini concentrated refill pouches are being sold exclusively on the Greener Choices site and the company invites purchasers to return to the site to post comments and critiques about their experience with the product.
Change Your Carbon Footprint
Also part of the Greener Choices site is a new a carbon calculator that SC Johnson launched in partnership with Conservation International (CI). The easy-to-use tool offers a detailed analysis of a family's carbon impact based on home energy use, vehicles, diet and more. It then offers suggestions to lower your impact and a chance to offset it.  
Research has shown that the average American produces approximately 20 tons of carbon dioxide every year - five times the global average. That's a big footprint - and one with a significant environmental impact. SC Johnson believes that families can be a force for change simply by understanding their carbon output and taking small steps in response. Tips like these can be found on the site and through the CI carbon calculator:
·         Replacing a single incandescent light bulb with a compact fluorescent can reduce C02 emissions by about 100 pounds. 
·         Recycling one aluminum can saves enough energy to run a TV for three hours.
·         Keeping your car's tires inflated can save hundreds of pounds of C02 each year.
“We are continually impressed by SC Johnson’s commitment to protecting the environment and inspiring that same commitment in others,” said Justin Ward, Vice President of Business Practices at Conservation International.  “By recognizing the value of Conservation International’s carbon calculator in educating families about how their everyday actions can help sustain nature for the benefit of people on Earth, SC Johnson continues their long tradition of environmental leadership.”
A History of Environmental Leadership
SC Johnson has made a commitment to reducing its own environmental footprint, as well. The company has set specific goals every five years for the last two decades and is currently working against objectives to be achieved by 2011. As reported in SC Johnson's 2010 Public Report, 75 percent of these have already been met, with SC Johnson reducing water and emissions by 54 percent since 2000, cutting U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 29.1 percent since 2006 and cutting worldwide GHG emissions by 31.6 percent since 2000.
The company hopes to source 40 percent of total electricity usage worldwide from renewable energy, and currently is at 39.7 percent. SC Johnson’s largest global factory, based in Racine, Wisconsin, is partially powered with cogeneration using methane gas from a local public landfill. Its Bay City, Michigan plant is powered with wind energy, reducing the annual purchase of coal-fired electricity by nearly half. In Indonesia, waste palm shells are burned as a substitute for fuel, requiring 80 percent less diesel fuel, and in 2009, SC Johnson launched its first owned and operated windmill at its largest European manufacturing plant in Mijdrecht, The Netherlands. The 80 meter-tall wind turbine is expected to eliminate 3,900 tons of carbon dioxide annually.
SC Johnson has been greening its products and operations for decades, examples include:
·         In 1975, we voluntarily and unilaterally eliminated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from our aerosols, three years before the U.S. mandate.
·         In 1992, we published our first sustainability report, becoming one of the first packaged goods companies to do so.
·         In 2001, we created our Greenlist™ process to help our chemists to select better ingredients and phase out less desirable ones. As an example, since 2005, we’ve cut nearly 48 million pounds of VOCs from our products. 
·         In 2002, we phased out chlorine-based external packaging materials worldwide, including bleached paperboard and bottles made of PVC.
·         In 2009, we surpassed industry guidelines by launching an extensive ingredient communication program (
·         By 2010, we had cut our worldwide greenhouse gas emissions by 31.6% since 2000.
·         In 2011, we announced that by 2015, we will only purchase palm oil-based ingredients that originate from responsible and sustainable sources.
About SC Johnson
SC Johnson is a family-owned and managed business dedicated to innovative, high-quality products, excellence in the workplace and a long-term commitment to the environment and the communities in which it operates. Based in the USA, the company is one of the world's leading manufacturers of household cleaning products and products for home storage, air care, and pest control. It markets such well-known brands as GLADE®, OFF!®, PLEDGE®, RAID®, SCRUBBING BUBBLES®, SHOUT®, WINDEX® and ZIPLOC® in the U.S. and beyond, with brands marketed outside the U.S. including AUTAN®, BAYGON®, BRISE®, KABIKILLER®, KLEAR®, and MR. MUSCLE®. The 125-year-old company, with more than $8 billion in sales, employs approximately 12,000 people globally and sells products in virtually every country around the world.
About Conservation International (CI)
Building upon a strong foundation of science, partnership and field demonstration, CI empowers societies to responsibly and sustainably care for nature for the well-being of humanity. With headquarters in Washington, DC, CI works in more than 40 countries on four continents. For more information, visit

Contributed by - Eileen Gallagher , Edelman

Monday, July 25, 2011

Walgreens is a U.S. based pharmacy chain that will provide charging stations in 800 locations across the country

Walgreens is a U.S. based Pharmacy chain. It plans to offer electric vehicle charging stations. By the year end it plans to cover about 800 locations. The charging station will have the capacity to provide charge for 30 miles in 10 minutes of charge. It is a high speed direct charger. The other will be a level 2 charger which can add about 25 miles of range in an hour. 

Food Chain contamination form radiation leak from Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Japan is causing concern in Japan.

Radiation from Fukushima nuclear power plant is causing a scare in Japan. The radiation levels in some of the food items were beyond permissible limits. It seems that the food chain in Japan is slowly getting contaminated. Unsafe levels of cesium were found in beef, vegetables and  in the Ocean. People are unhappy about the fact that government has been slow to react to the situation and they feel that it has not done enough to contain the contamination. 

China’s Southern province of Fujian is planning to ban hydropower projects to preserve local water resources

According to reports China’s Southern province of Fujian is planning to ban hydropower projects. This move will help the province to preserve water resources. This was reported by China News Agency. 

Suzlon Energy is selling its stake in Hansen Transmission International to ZF Friedrichshafen AG.

Suzlon Energy  is selling its stake in Hansen Transmission International to ZF Friedrichshafen AG.  Suzlon is likely to get around 115 million pounds in the deal. Suzlon is the largest wind turbine maker in India. Suzlon has agreed to the offer from ZF and is willing to sell its entire stake of 26.06 percent. ZF is a German firm. It makes auto parts and agricultural machinery. This deal will help Suzlon which needs funds. 

Wednesday, July 20, 2011

Siemens Industry Inc. has launched electrical vehicle charging stations known as VersiCharge.

Siemens Industry Inc. has also launched electrical vehicle charging stations. The product is known as VersiCharge. It can be used both by commercial and home users. It is a Level 2 charger and can also be used in 240 V. The product has been designed for smart grid integrations and network connectivity. It is available in two models. 

Tuesday, July 19, 2011

GE Energy Industrial Solutions have joined hands with Lowes. Lowes is a home improvement store. Together they plan to offer GE WattStation.

GE Energy Industrial Solutions have joined hands with Lowes. Lowes is a home improvement store. Together they plan to offer GE WattStation.  GE WattStation is a Wall Mount Electric Vehicle Charging Station. It can be used by homes and businesses. This was announced at the Plug-In 2011 Conference and Exposition. Initially it will be available at five stores in California and by September the product will be available in 60 U.S stores and also on The product can charge an electric car in 4 to 8 hours. The other standard products available in the market take about 12 to 14 hours. WattStation is  Level 2 charger.

Renewable energy firm Renova Energia SA will become the biggest wind power producer in Brazil after selling its stake in Cia. Energetica de Minas Gerais. Cia

Renova Energia SA is based out of Brazil. It a renewable energy company. It has recently sold its stake in the utility firm Cia. Energetica de Minas Gerais.  Cia. Energetica de Minas Gerais was constrolled by the state. Renova Energia plans to use the money to build up its wind power capacity. It has plans to become the largest producer of wind power by 2016. The firm plans to develop 1.3 gigawatts of wind farms in the next five years. 

Solon SE is expecting loss in the current year. The share prices of the company has dropped to a seven year low in Frankfurt trading.

Solon SE is expecting loss in the current year. The share prices of the company has dropped to a seven year low in Frankfurt trading. This is primarily due to the fact that the demand for solar panels have dropped in its two biggest markets. Revenue for the year is expected to drop to 500 million euros. The company is also likely to face bankruptcy.

Monday, July 18, 2011

Australians are not very keen to support Prime Minister Julia Gillard’s crusade against pollution

Australians are not very keen to support Prime Minister Julia Gillard’s crusade against pollution. In a recent poll most Australians favored an early election. The Labor party’s support fell to a one year low to about 26%, where as the opposition party has increased popularity to 51% points.  I won’t let this country surrender in the face of the challenge of climate change,” Gillard told a business breakfast in Sydney. Gillard will be touring Australia to muster support for her environmental plans. 

Beyond Carbon Cowboys: Private sector engagement & experience in REDD+ in Asia.

Articles - By Unna Chokkalingam & S. Anuradha Vanniarachchy on Jul 15, 2011
could be directly accessed on

“Forest Carbon projects are not quick and easy, and they are not cheap“, say private sector forest carbon project developers across Asia. How has the private sector engaged across the region? What have been the main challenges in different countries? What lessons have been learnt?

The private sector is one of the key actors developing forest carbon projects across several countries in Asia along with government agencies, NGOs, and multilateral and bilateral donor projects. By private sector engagement, we mean projects developed by private enterprises or with private sector investment in the early stages. We exclude projects where the private sector acts purely as a late-stage carbon credit buyer.

How significant is private sector engagement in different countries across Asia and what proportion is it of overall activity on the ground?
Answer: Difficult to tell precisely given the absence of national project registries and many projects being initiated and then abandoned for one reason or the other.

Based on readily-available information and some interviews, we derive an estimate of 36 active projects with private sector involvement across Asia versus 58 projects without private sector involvement. The numbers do not include projects in fuzzy early exploratory stages. Bulk of the total 94 projects are in Indonesia (38) followed by India (11), Philippines (9) and China (9). Cambodia, Laos, PNG and Vietnam follow with 5 projects each.

Bulk of the private sector projects are also in Indonesia, India, Philippines and China. Private sector projects dominate in India (72%) and the Philippines (55%). In the other 6 countries with 5 projects or more, 20-45% of the projects have been developed by the private sector. We are personally aware of 10 more private sector proposals for REDD+ projects in Lao PDR, and some in India, Vietnam and Thailand.

What project types have the private sector taken up in different countries?
Looking at the known and defined 36 private sector projects, 18 are AR, 15 are REDD and 3 are IFM. Of the AR projects, 14 are CDM projects and 4 are voluntary market projects. The private sector has focused on REDD in Indonesia and Cambodia, countries with substantial forest cover and high deforestation rates. It has focused on AR in India and China, countries with low and stable to rising forest cover. The private sector started both AR and REDD projects in Laos and the Philippines and initiated IFM projects in Malaysia and PNG.

Many AR projects are validated and registered while REDD projects are primarily in initial development stages. All project types are increasingly focused on the voluntary carbon standards and markets while awaiting an international compliance mechanism and market.

Project sizes and expected credit volumes
The private sector AR projects range in size from 106 -18,000 hectares and expect to generate < 0.1-10.7 million tCO2 over 20-30 years. Private sector REDD projects are much larger, ranging in size from 58,000-750,000 hectares with expected credit volumes of 7-100 million tCO2 over 20-30 years. The IFM projects are intermediate with expected credit volumes of 10-37 million tCO2 over 40-100 years. Project motivations and land types In Indonesia , the private sector is developing REDD projects on “Ecosystem Restoration Concessions”, a licensing system that allows different actors to apply for degraded forests to restore the ecosystem and benefit from the sale of environmental services generated. Another area of private sector focus is avoided conversion of forests to oil palm within existing oil palm concession areas. In India, private sector developers have developed numerous AR projects on small farmer lands for enhancing their livelihoods through carbon sequestration. In China, domestic forest development companies are involved in the rehabilitation of degraded state and village lands. Private sector experiences across Asia The tenure challenge, high investment costs and low government support in Indonesia As per current regulations, private sector investment possibilities in REDD+ in Indonesia include sustainable forest management (SFM) in existing logging concessions, avoided forest conversion within existing oil palm and industrial plantation concessions, applying for ecosystem restoration concessions, and collaborating on community forestry areas. Most commercial REDD+ projects are applying for ecosystem restoration licenses for 60 years plus an additional 35 year extension period given the clear legal framework. “However, registering such a concession is a complex process involving multiple endorsements from different levels of government,” says Mr. Frank Momberg, Development Director of the NGO Fauna and Flora International‘s (FFI) Asia-Pacific Programme. FFI has been working with the private sector to develop forest carbon projects in Indonesia. “It can take two years or more. So far no forest carbon projects have obtained tenure and at least five projects are waiting for approval by the Ministry of Forestry. Once tenure is obtained, they then have to apply for a carbon trading license which could again take a substantial amount of time. All in all the formal and informal costs in this process are very high.” Even securing tenure for community forestry (Hutan Desa) is a new, long and complex process. Projects may be easier done in existing oil palm and logging concessions. “However, voluntary carbon market prices do not match oil palm opportunity costs,” states Momberg, “Emerging markets demanding certified palm oil may provide the economic incentive.” The private sector itself has been mixed in its performance. High initial investment costs are a major obstacle and numerous ‘carbon cowboys’ entered the scene without sufficient investment backing. “The long and costly processes have weeded out the undercapitalized companies and the ones with larger investments are still functional,” says Momberg, “FFI has learned from the early experiences and has now teamed up with the Australian Macquarie Capital to ensure sufficient upfront capital through the development process.” Additionality is not an issue given the high forest cover and high deforestation rates. Demand is also not a problem as there is already substantial pledged funding for forest carbon. However, there is enormous political and regulatory uncertainty and tensions between different government institutions and levels which generates substantial investment risk. Government support for the private sector is low in Indonesia now. “Recent large top-down government-to-government agreements have all but killed the private sector forest carbon markets in Indonesia,” says Mr. Scott Stanley, Managing Director of Forest Carbon, a technical consulting firm based in Indonesia. “Focus and priorities have shifted to building national level processes and institutions while efforts to support the voluntary markets have come to a standstill.” Regulatory uncertainty and additionality questions in the Philippines An example of a private sector project in the Philippines is the REDD project bring developed by Tokyo Electric Co. in collaboration with the NGO Fauna and Flora International on 100,000 hectares of ancestral domain lands in Southern Luzon. This approach would actually support tenure and carbon rights for indigenous people based on the Philippines’ Ancestral Domain Act and its emerging REDD regulations. Momberg of FFI suggests that low-forest low-deforestation countries like the Philippines are more supportive of projects since they are not swamped with donor money that focuses on national-level readiness. “Number of projects are still limited because such countries do not jump to mind when thinking about REDD and there is the question of additionality. Developers tend to head for Indonesia with high forest and high deforestation rates and therefore greater potential carbon savings to be made,” he observes. The Philippine PeƱablanca Sustainable Reforestation Project (PPSRP) in Cagayan being conducted by Conservation International (CI) and Toyota Motor Corporation has been validated under the CCB Standard at the Gold Level and expected carbon sequestration has been calculated as a part of CCBS requirements. Mr. Yoji Natori of CI clarified that the PPSRP was not a carbon credit project and that it emphasizes community and biodiversity benefits. With this clarification, he outlined the general challenges faced by forestry projects on the ground. “We are trying to implement on the ground something very new to local communities. There is a lot to explain and it usually takes much longer than expected while the project term is limited and set. ” “The government is open to and supportive of private sector engagement in the Philippines,” Natori notes, “but basic rules such as “Who owns the forest carbon?” are still being decided in the process of establishing the national policy on this issue.” Uncertain role, finding eligible project areas and bureaucratic process in Vietnam In Vietnam, it is mostly Afforestation Reforestation or AR. A lot of interest is being shown by the private sector in developing forest carbon projects in Vietnam. However as Frank Momberg of FFI states, “How the private sector will engage in REDD+ in Vietnam is not yet known, as a legal framework for REDD is still in the making. A possibility is the 5 million hectares rehabilitation program area under smallholder ownership. There is already legislation in place for PES and business contracts for other environmental services.” The other possibility is working with state forest enterprises on lands under their jurisdiction. CO2OL Carbon Consult, a consulting agency that is part of the ForestFinance group, has an AR project on State Forest Enterprise land in Vietnam. Andreas Schnall of CO2OL indicated that the project was on hold at the moment. The key challenges they faced were: a) unclear land use and carbon rights, b) finding eligible areas with no forest for the last 10 years as required by the Carbonfix standard and of sufficient size (> 500 ha), c) the substantial paperwork and long process to sign even a small letter, and d) the low awareness and capacity of private companies on developing such projects.

Positive AR experience and REDD challenges in India
Many private sector developers have undertaken afforestation projects on small farmer lands for sequestering carbon and enhancing livelihoods. “It is not easy”, said Mr. Satyanarayana, Advisor to VEDA Climate Change Solutions, a private company helping farmers develop a CDM AR project, “We started in 2004 and it took seven years to register the project. The commercial private sector would have given up a long time ago but for us it was an intellectual challenge. Of course it was all new then, there were no methodologies and everybody had to learn what to do. Now the situation is better and we plan to develop more projects since the social benefits are good. Poor farmers can generate additional income through agroforestry and carbon revenues on their degraded lands.”

Mr. Joseph Rexon of TIST tree planting India Ltd. indicated that they had similar experiences given the newness of the process but now it was more doable. Their CDM AR project also supports small farmers to generate multiple benefits through afforestation on lands they cannot use for agriculture. “Farmers are not able to do agriculture on a large scale given the erratic rainfall, so they are interested in the AR project. We plan to expand to other states now,” he said.

The project developers indicated that the government including local forest departments had been supportive of such projects and markets were also not a problem. Buyers have been coming in recently and purchasing the credits. Even if the Kyoto Protocol failed, they were confident they could sell the credits in the voluntary markets. However, it is not big money and more of a social business rather than a financially profitable venture.

The agencies would continue to support the farmers through the implementation stage and this was important. Private sector partnerships were useful for technical and logistical assistance and to provide markets for the timber and other products generated through the projects. Satyanarayana pointed out the key remaining challenges for developing such projects, “The gestation period for returns is long. You need to work with many small farmers and technical consultants are difficult to find. So there are not as many projects as there could be.”

Up-front investment was critical. The TIST project was backed by its parent company Clean Air Action Corporation in the USA and VEDA’s project had sold its credits early on to the multilateral BioCarbon Fund managed by the World Bank. “The Bank’s representatives will be coming in September to release the first carbon payments directly to the farmers. This is a big accomplishment for us,” said Satyanarayana.

The Indian government is actively engaged in international REDD+ discussions and the first REDD pilot projects are being explored. Dr. Nina Sengupta, a conservation and development consultant, suggests that REDD is difficult to implement in India given the current forest land tenure situation. Numerous reports and media articles state that the 2006 Forest Rights Act of India restituting rights to forest-dwelling populations has not been implemented effectively. Community ownership is not recognized and is even contested by the authorities in places. Sustainable management of the forests by non-state actors and linking to REDD markets will require clear and secure tenure arrangements.

Limited data access and slow government process in Laos
The Government has received proposals from numerous private enterprises seeking to develop forest carbon projects in Laos. The Department of Forestry recently organized a workshop to facilitate information-sharing with and feedback from the private sector. Mr. Bounthang from Prime Consultancy Co., Laos said, “Obtaining information such as GIS, social data and history of the project sites is really difficult. There is not much staff and the information is not easily accessible by the public. Accessible data and quick government support is vital for the projects to proceed quickly. Ultimately a comprehensive legal framework is needed.”

Mr. Oupakone Alounsavath, Director of the Planning Division, Department of Forestry acknowledged that the government approval and support process may be long now but it was new to them and they were learning by doing. They appreciated advice on process and could support mainly feasibility studies at the moment.

Mr. Aimilios Chatzinikolaou from the World Bank’s International Finance Corporation (IFC) indicated that they were looking to partner with large plantation companies with global experience such as Stora Enso, Oji and Birla to support agroforestry models outside their concession areas in Laos and determine whether carbon finance could provide adequate social revenue. “Lack of knowledge on where to start and how to proceed is the biggest issue we face.”

Unfavourable REDD and IFM baselines, and high opportunity costs for AR in Malaysia
Face the Future, a Dutch forest project development company, has been working on the INFAPRO rainforest rehabilitation IFM project in Sabah, Malaysia since about 1992. It is one of the earliest forest carbon projects in the region and Dutch energy companies used the carbon credits to voluntarily offset their emissions. Mr. Martijn Snoep, Carbon Project Manager of Face the Future, indicated that they did not face many challenges in project implementation. “We have long-term relations with local counterparts, an NGO helps manage the project site and we resolved the technical challenges early on. We are now switching to the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) and have found new buyers for the credits over the last decade.”

Snoep believes that Malayisa has only a few forest carbon projects because the investment required is high, there are few developers, the baselines are not favourable for REDD or IFM at present, and AR cannot compete with the opportunity costs of developing oil palm on non-forested lands. “Production forest management practices have improved since the 1990s leaving little room for additional carbon gain in an IFM project. There is less conversion of forest to oil palm now after establishment of reserves, but that could change depending on the political situation and if there is insufficient money for sustainable forest management,” says Snoep. “There may be more room for REDD+ in Sarawak. There is more forest there and activities are less organized.”

Challenging processes and negotiations in Cambodia
Cambodia appears to have two REDD projects on the ground where private sector developers are involved along with international NGOs and government agencies. Another project by the British Company Tricor may be in the offing though there has been little information on this since its announcement in January 2011.

Ms. Amanda Bradley, Program Director of the NGO PACT in Cambodia, works with private sector developer, Terra Global Capital of the USA on the Oddar Meanchey REDD project. She describes some of the main challenges faced by the project, “It has been a long 3.5 year process of project development to date. The new methodology took time to develop followed by prolonged negotiations of roles and benefit-sharing between the different groups involved – government, private sector and NGO/community.”

Bradley adds, “There has not been much funding for project development, especially for communities in this time and things can go out of control on the ground. It has been difficult to find donors willing to invest in project start-up.”

Some lessons for private sector developers across Asia
Developing forest carbon projects in Asia is not quick and easy, and may not make sense from a purely commercial perspective. Even in the most enabling environment, it is a new and long process, there are many steps, it involves informing and working with stakeholders on the ground and governments at different levels, inaccessible data has to be drawn out, a methodology selected, documents have to be prepared and the project design has to be validated. Companies driven by “more than profit” motivations and prepared for a relatively long process stand a better chance.

Developing a forest carbon project in Asia is not cheap. Carbon measurements, socialization processes, and PDD development and validation call for sufficient up-front investment backing through the long development process.

Unclear and uncertain forest land tenure is a major issue in most countries and securing tenure over the project areas can be a long and complex process in places with high costs. That said, managing the forests for REDD+ demands clear and secure tenure arrangements to become operational. REDD+ thus has the potential like no other mechanism before it to help clarify and secure forest land tenure and rights for communities and other actors on the ground. Project developers will likely need to engage with clarifying tenure on the ground as a part of project activities.

Market interest and demand does not appear to be a problem for forest carbon projects. Buyers are attracted to the forest carbon project story − forest conservation or enhancement, benefits to local communities and climate change mitigation. Even if a compliance market fails to develop, developers are confident of demand for forest carbon in the voluntary carbon markets.

It is easier to start projects on sites where NGOs and others have already been working on natural resource and community issues in the area. Site and social data is available, a base exists for introduction and socialization of the new concepts, and an experienced local partner exists for facilitation and long-term implementation of the project.

Projects may have higher financial viability and be easier for the private sector to execute in areas that offer large credit volumes (such as peatlands and avoided high forest conversion) and have clear and secure tenure arrangements (existing private or community tenure, or clear tenure process for operating on state lands).

With evolving policies and attempts to devolve forest land use rights to communities, there is emerging scope for private-public partnerships in community and small farmer projects for multiple benefits including carbon across Asia. These projects may not provide high carbon returns and may involve high transaction costs. However, they could offer reduced social conflict and significant social benefits attractive for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) motivations.

Unlike transport and renewable energy projects, forest carbon projects are wrapped in a spectrum of highly-sensitive issues related to the land, forests, biodiversity and people. Playing by the rules, i.e. conducting FPIC (Free Prior Informed Consent) processes, ensuring truly participatory and transparent procedures, helping secure tenure, making clear and equitable benefit-sharing arrangements, and certifying to strong social and environmental quality standards will help private companies discharge their social responsibilities and present a credible public image.

At present there is substantial regulatory uncertainty both in the international and national arena. Policies and mechanisms are just evolving. Private sector investments under current unclear legal frameworks face policy and market risks. Besides, government support and facilitation of the private sector is limited in most Asian countries. Projects face long and tedious bureaucratic processes to obtain data and approvals.

So what are the future prospects for sustainable private sector engagement in forest carbon projects across Asia? “There is a big potential future for well-planned and sustainable private sector projects in Asia given high market demand and relatively low management costs here, but the legal and institutional processes need to be ironed out,” sums up Schnall of CO2OL Carbon Consult.

Keywords: AR, Asia, Cambodia, carbon cowboys, CDM, CDM AR, China, companies, CSR, FPIC, government, IFM, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, NGOs, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, PNG, private sector, REDD, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, VCS, Vietnam